Prior to 1952, Kuwait was a vernacular settlement overlooking the Arabian Gulf, composed of courtyard houses built using mud brick and coral stones along narrow alleys. The city was surrounded by protective wall with several gates. The pictures illustrate the urban pattern in old Kuwait and its traditional houses lined along narrow streets, looking inward into courtyards suitable for climatic conditions and social needs. The city was surrounded by semi-circular defensive wall constructed in 1920 to protect it from the tribal attacks.