World Architecture Awards Submissions / 42nd Cycle
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Project site is located in Nerimanov district of Baku which is the capital and the largest city of Azerbaijan.
The typology of buildings are as follows; residential areas, commercial plinth, health department and the Mall which has social amenities. These typologies are constructed according to the use case scenarios of the users of the project. There are 29 residential complexes, 4 educational complexes, 42 commerce units, 1 health unit and 1 Mall complex, which all have been designed with the target audience in mind. The main elements of the layout can be defined for their purposes. The commerce units are extroverted since they are situated on the axis which provide access to the city and they are planned with a strong connection to the transportation axis. The health unit is situated as a continuation to the commerce unit and provide services both the residential users and external users.
Residential ares are divided into 2 phases by the inner axis that has entry through the restricted access commercial axis. The two phases has the same layouts. The main criteria while designing the residential area are;
- In the area two types of homes, one being an urban dwelling and the other being a recreational, gardened town house are common. 70% of the project’s land is left for the construction of this fact in mind, as homes with garden access and greenery. The layout of the project is created in consideration with the local habits of the habitants.
- The layout is created in consideration with the windy nature of the site, so the buildings can act as wind breakers and can give users maximum use of daylight.
- In order to create necessary privacy for the habitants, facades of the buildings are designed accordingly.
There are open parking spaces and parking garages designed according to the appropriate use case scenarios. The distinction being long term and short-term parking, for the residents there are parking garages for long term parking with restricted access and open-air parking spaces designated for the users of the commercial and social areas which is considered more sporadically use case scenarios. Because of the layout of the residential areas and the restricted access, the entry point is designed through the common garden area. For the plinth residential axis though, the doubles villas have private entry points. Because the public can use the commercial axis, health department and the social amenities, the entry point is designed to be free and in accordance with the city’s scale.
Buildings for schooling are situated on the southwest and the south-east parts of the lot and are separated from the rest of the lot with the residential area and vehicle and pedestrian axis’.
There are 5 types of apartments designed for the target audience ranging from apartments with a 1 1 layout to 4 1 layout and also apartments with garden access and doubles villas with garden access. The most common residential typology in the entire project is type E buildings with 3 1 and 4 1 layouts. Type E residential areas are designed with crowded families in mind. Type B residential apartments provide an alternative on the inner garden and the commercial plinth.
Whereas type D2 and D3 residential areas are designed towards less crowded families and/or single adults with a need to satisfy their social life habits and an access to the garden and the axis for the commercial/urban axis. The idea behind ground floor apartments and the residential axis of the plinth having an access to the garden is trying to create a new culture for the area. That’s why the residential area towering over the plinth have rooftop gardens which the penthouse residents can enjoy.
The history of construction of mass housing projects and architecture of mass housing spans over 80 years in Azerbaijan. During this time, local social and economical requirements have changed and Azerbaijani architecture has developed in to new horizons. The residential architecture in Baku during the 19th century has been affected by the industrial revolution and Soviet Union’s mass residential construction policies.
A welcoming area with premium features is designed for each residential block. Even though entry to the area is restricted, extra security measures are taken in the welcoming area of each residential block. The apartments can be accessed with vertical circulation and are designed according to local fire laws. The main factor in the layout type is creating maximum efficiency to enjoy the view without disturbing the neighboring habits of the habitants while conserving privacy.
The main criteria while designing the apartments was an idea hoped to be common in the area’s residential space use cases while leaving the Soviet Culture’s dispersing foot traffic to different rooms through one entry point’. For daily and entertaining use cases living room and kitchen areas are connected to the hall whereas more intimate parts of the living space such as bedrooms are situated towards the back of the apartments. The residents are all designed with big empty spaces to take advantage of the view and daylight intake.
All apartments are fitted with a balcony considering the changing nature of people’s daily lives due to the pandemic. All boilers are situated on the balcony and camouflaged in to the façade of the buildings to create a more pleasant sight and to keep the use of explosive and dangerous materials away from the living areas. The decorative cupboard situated on the balcony also houses the natural gas intake lines and air conditioning units. Even though it is not considered a big problem in the area’s culture, soundproofing and insulation amongst the apartments are implemented.
Site Area : 209.621 m2
Total Housing Construction Area: 530.387 m2
Total Non-Housing Construction Area : 72.335 m2
Gross Housing Construction Area: 414.190 m2
Gross Non-Housing Construction Area: 50.495 m2
Healing is a multi-layered process that has at its core the well-being of the patient. From first appointments, to medical interventions and all the way to recovery, a hospital is the most critical destination outside home where treatment takes place. Frequently visited by a vulnerable patient, a transplant hospital renders itself as the extension of home: a safe place filled with comfort and familiarity.
Intimately tied to the life of the patient, the new Transplant Centre in Cluj-Napoca becomes an active agent in the act of nurturing well-being. Through scale, materiality and typology, the building relates to the surrounding context, thus integrating seamlessly into the life of the city. Connected with the landscape through planted terraces, sunken gardens, and an ample courtyard, the hospital extends the process of healing from inside to outside.
As the “garden” of the larger hospital campus, the sloped park is both a destination and a transition space. Accessible ramps connect between platforms, while olfactory gardens and active play areas like the bocce court punctuate the landscape and offer opportunities for social interaction. Alleys enlargements accommodate benches, and stepping platforms dispersed on the slope allow for seating. The park design protects significant trees; interventions fill the space between, thus creating a loose fabric of connections that can be configured based on existing conditions.
The sloped park extends into the lower terrace with open green space; similar paving and planting strategies continue throughout the entire hospital campus and create continuity between platforms.
The project starts from a compact volume from which parts were excavated. This results into a more playful volume that brings daylight deep into the building. These excavations also scale down the building; reaching 24 meter and terracing down to 20, 16 and even 12 meter in some places. In this way, the hospital adapts to the heights of the surrounding buildings.
The program of the hospital extends around a central courtyard and covers a total of nine floors. This central courtyard starts on the level of the first basement and is directly connected to the park, providing daylight and ventilation to eight different floors.
The main vertical circulation is organized around two vertical cores that run through all the levels and allow access to the different areas. These cores consist of a staircase and five elevators, each reserved for a different medical circuit.
While modern in its composition, the façade relates to the neo-renaissance style of surrounding buildings through its materiality and horizontal subdivisions. The ornamental use of brick in the form of playful patterns reminisces of the secessionist elements of the neighbouring monuments.
The façade consists of a regular play of solid and void in the shape of stripes that run vertically conferring sculptural look. The regularity of the façade also accentuates the excavations that form the entrances.
The brick patterns cast beautiful shadows that move throughout the day and their warm and soft welcoming colors bring a bit of rest amidst the tumult of materials and textures generated by the surrounding buildings.
The project aims to be NZEB and nature-inclusive, and to reach the BREEAM standards.
Photovoltaic panels provide energy for the LED lighting and the heating of water (for domestic use and the water-based ventilation system). Rainwater will be recycled and reused in toilets and green space irrigation.
The hybrid ventilation system works as naturally as possible, as it receives clean and cooled air from the courtyard. When necessary the system mechanically filters, warms or cools it down by making use of geothermal energy. In the winter it will recover and reuse 80% of the outgoing warm air. The rooms will be equipped with CO2-measurers for the system to run as economically and efficient as possible.
The stack effect that result from the facade’s double-skin glazed windows, as well as its integrated sun-shading system, will help reducing the energy consumption. Furthermore, the double skin concept of the windows will act as a strong barrier against pollution and noise.
The project implements measures having a beneficial effect on the patients’ recovery such as biophilic design, abundant natural light and the use of natural materials. The inner courtyard hosts a relaxation area designed on the basis of permaculture principles for a maximum impact on the regeneration of the site and for the support of biodiversity.
Finally, the project also aims at limiting its environmental impact by using reusable, recovered or long lasting materials.
Located at the Bangalore University campus at Jnanabharathi, Bangalore, Karnataka, around 14 km away from the core of the city, this training institute is a part of the CoA Architectural centres. They are extensions of the academic wing of the CoA and strive to be Centers of Excellence imparting training, conducting research, and disseminating knowledge through mediums such as publications and providing motivation to students through various programs. They act as great forums of interaction and national resource centres for the profession of architecture.
The primary purpose of the project is to develop a novel vocabulary of architecture that can be a prototype beacon for future practice norms, in addition to raising fundamental questions about the purpose of the architecture profession. The project was approached from three different angles - Rethinking Sustainability (“Future from the Past”), Rethinking Architecture (Simply “Architecture”- designing for the New Normal), and Rethinking Bangalore (Contextual Approach: Reversing the vicious cycle). Each of these varied lenses offers a different perspective on the project. The design development involved integrating and balancing the Five Elements of Nature also called the PanchTatvas (Earth, Fire, Water, Air and Space). This is to achieve Simple Living and provide for all three faculties of man namely, spiritual, psychological and physical. This will be the true definition of Architecture.
SITE PLANNING PRINCIPLE:
The site is Located at the Bangalore University campus at Jnanabharathi, Bangalore, Karnataka, around 14 km away from the core of the city, an area of 2 Acres, Surrounded by residential communities of Kengeri satellite town, it has access to all facilities supported by downtowns.
Existing Trees in the site are maintained and incorporated within the design, while the green terraces compensates few. A few new tree species based on the five elements/senses are considered for re-introduction which are indigenous to the city of Bangalore. The intention is to create a forest-like environment on the site, providing a healthier and peaceful ambience for everyone.
The trees in the design not only creates greenery and aesthetics but also become Max a part of social-interaction spaces for people from buildings to interact in the FSI/F plaza. This plaza accommodates seating, informal performance area and Set gathering spaces.
The site planning principle is “to harvest all that is freely available on site and again give back to nature more than what has been taken from it”. The COA-COE site plan in Bangalore positions the administration building, conference centre, resource centre, archives, and guest house towards the back of the property, all of which are encircled by forested greenery.
LOCAL MATERIALS - WITH LOW EMBODIED ENERGY:
Conscious efforts have been taken to use more natural, local, low-energy materials such as bamboo, mud, stone, etc. Steel and concrete were kept to a minimum because of their high embodied energy. They not only lessen the project's carbon footprint, but also give a healthier, natural and peaceful ambience to the buildings.
The 6" topsoil removed during excavation for the sub-structure is preserved and used for the plantation in the green roof. This makes sure that the nutrient-rich topsoil is from the site and nothing from outside is brought to disturb the existing balance.
Net Plus Design
Water: The water saved by the rainwater harvesting system is used effectively with water efficiency measure of almost 70 percentage.
Energy: The energy required for the building is provided by the solar panels on the bamboo roof structure.
Waste Management: The waste management system of the site is taken care of by composting (for solid waste) which also adds nutrients content to the soil and by Sewage treatment plant.
The net carbon emission is kept at a minimum by the use of bamboo and rammed earth. The indigenous trees are preserved on site to maintain the air quality.
By balancing these factors, a NET PLUS design was achieved.
Building Energy Features:
Site Area: 2 Acres
Total built-up Area: 8814 sq.m
Building footprint: 2589.97 (32%)
Water body Area: 419 sq.m
Balcony Area: 425 sq.m
Sky forest: 1598 sq.m (64%)
Green plot ratio: 125%
Community plot ratio: 115
Ar. Neelam Manjunath
Human exploration of space is progressing with time and technological development, and it is critical that architects contribute to the design of future habitats on other planets. Existing architectural ideas for Mars overlook a crucial aspect of human settlement: how to guarantee that structures are constructed in the optimal place in such an alien environment. Scientific research has also continuously shown more and more locations with high scientific research potential, but how can we get there? Before settling into a new living environment, architects are obligated to consider how to utilize their expertise in building design and creative architectural construction techniques to boost the viability of future living patterns. Hence, this thesis will discuss how to use architectural form and innovative mechanical systems to create a potential design of a deployable moving Martian architecture that will enable more advanced manned exploration and better comprehend the unfamiliar and unknown environment.
Space architecture, the practice of designing and building inhabited environments in outer space, has started to become a newly emerging subject in architectural studies due to the advancement in technology and the threat of unpredicted disasters on Earth. “Life continuing on Earth is not guaranteed.” 1
Since 2013, NASA has embarked on the visionary of Martian architecture, expecting that this research will open another possible habitat for human beings in the future. According to NASA, the goal of sending humans to Mars is an ongoing study topic that aims to be accomplished in the 2030s. Many well-known architecture studios, such as Foster Partners, BIG, AI Space factory etc., are exploring the possibility of future extraterrestrial architecture from different perspectives such as construction methods, local materials application, supply, and transportation. The challenges that the architect needs to face are not simply design but also construction challenges. The project Marsha designed by the AI space factory aims to use 3d printing to construct structures with local material on Mars. But after consulting with experts who had interviewed the founder of the AI Space factory, this construction method has significant drawbacks. The temperature on Mars is highly volatile. In the process of 3d printing, the printing filament is likely to solidify and shrink prematurely due to temperature changes, thus causing uncontrollable printing form and space tightness. (Image.1) Hence, in the early architectural design phase, on-site construction with direct robots printing technology is unrealistic on such an uncharted terrain during the earliest stage of Mars architectural design. Architects must consider constructing a structure that may be used immediately upon Mars’s arrival.
Besides the climate, the other external factors may also threaten the settlement on Mars. “There is like a new crater forming on Mars every one or two days,” said Ingrid Daubar, a planetary scientist at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory who studies the impacts with the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. The craters can be approximately 13 feet wide, which suggests they were formed by objects about the size of a football. Also, according to Johnson. “This is a hazard throughout the solar system that we’ll have to keep in mind as we venture out.”2 Even if the chances of such an event are low, it is a point that is unavoidable for the architect to consider while designing the future habitation.
Access to supplies and scientific investigation will be the primary focus of the astronauts when they arrive on Mars. During the research, scientists constantly update the sites on Mars with potential scientific research values. (image.2) However, there is no guarantee that these potential scientific contributed spots will benefit human habitation on this unknown terrain. Therefore, the architect should contribute more ideas that would support relocating and venturing out to a different location in forms of architecture since it is deadly for people to leave the habitable shelter for an extensive area on Mars without protection. From an architect’s perspective, I argue that the future architecture form on Mars should not be stationary. Instead, it should be in locomotion to provide the best Habitability for the settlers. Since this is an unknown planet, we should consider designing the architecture for this uncharted territory by learning from the early human existence on Earth.
GENERAL SYSTEM OF HUMAN SETTLEMENT
Our race has been historically experienced a lot before human civilization was established. In the book “The Evolution of Human Settlements - From Pleistocene Origins to Anthropocene Prospects,” it was noted that human civilization commenced over 300,000 years ago in the earliest records of anthropologists.3 According to the research, human settlement began about 10,000-5,000 years ago. In other words, for most of the history of humanity, the settlement did not exist. Since humans are conscious and creative organisms, we function in our interaction with the world and the environment around us.
We only create and repeat behaviours that are meaningful to us. Thus for 97% of human presence, using constant mobile habitats is the solution that increases human race survivability in the unforeseen environment. We can examine how clusters are formed through a closed human settlement system. The human settlement requires a systemic environment with inputs (economic, sociological, technological factors and resources from the environment) to produce outputs (built environment, land uses, political and institutional arrangements, a socioecological system, artifacts). In the most primitive environments, the acquisition and development of the inputs is the most critical aspect. Therefore, the human settlement will result from accumulating experience and resources through relocation. At the present phase, the understanding of Mars in terms of the built environment, resource location and treats is not enough to support designing architectures for long-term human settlement according to the settlement system. Hence I think we should use relocatable architecture as one of the driving forces to refine the knowledge about Mars by learning the trajectory of human life before eventual settlement.
Therefore, the emergence of the settlement will result from enhancing the access to Martian knowledge, experience and local resources accumulated throughout the relocation. Therefore, this thesis’s concept and major objectives are to study and explore how to make the buildings move in this unknown land to solve settlement problems such as climate, external factors, and access to supplies, bringing more potential and possibility to Mars habitation.
SITE AND SITE CONDITION
The Mars landscape is a site with complexity, both in resource allocation and climate variability, affecting the site to varying degrees. In terms of composition, size, and surface gravity, Venus is more comparable to Earth. However, considering colonization, time and daily schedule always have a significant impact on the physical and psychological health of the human body. The length of a Martian day is especially close to that of Earth. On Mars, a solar day lasts 24 hours, 39 minutes, and 35.244 seconds”4 which provides a similar 24-hour cycle for human body regulation. According to the article series “What is the Best Planet?”5 In their infancy, Mars and Earth shared similarities with rivers and lakes engraved on their surfaces and volcanoes rising from their plains. Recent observations from NASA’s Mars Design Reference Architecture confirmed the existence of polar caps, which could potentially be the source of water resources. (Image.3) They also demonstrate their investigation into the electrical effects on Mars that could serve as a source of continuous and episodic energy.6 The average acceleration of gravity on Mars is 3.72076 ms-2, which is half that of the Earth. Still, investigations have shown that, unlike the microgravity of the Moon, human lifestyles will not be overly altered or affected by the gravity of -3.72 ms-2.
There are many constraints based on the site’s condition. A proper sustained human presence on Mars requires consideration of many inquiries. Architect should consider how to protect people from the alien, unknown environment of Mars; how to construct, with what material; where to construct, and how to maintain its Habitability through time. According to NASA’s statement, the practice needs to consider four (4) main aspects: Habitability, system development, self-sufficiency, and the physical and psychological impact on habitants’ health.
Habitability - Consider the ability to meet occupant needs with local resources, energy extraction from local resources, and on-site manufacturing and maintenance.
Systems Development - This includes the goal of building reliable and robust space systems that will allow for the gradual and safe growth and expansion of capabilities.
Self-sufficiency - The design increases the level of self-sufficiency for Mars mission operations.
Health - Addresses physical and mental health issues, such as improving bone mineral loss and muscle atrophy in a weight-reduced environment and monitoring emotional and mental conditions. Providing relaxational space.
This thesis will address the four limitations mentioned above by expanding upon a deployable mobile Mars architecture, which will allow for more advanced manned exploration and a better understanding of the site. Relocatable architecture was well-known by Archigram’s “The walking city.” (Image.4) Despite the fact that this is a work of fiction, we can see the architect’s redefining of the placement and mobility of the structure. My definition of architecture is initially a shelter that provides residents with a sense of security, but in the case of war and natural pollution, for example, architecture at a permanent site cannot serve as a shelter. Changing the shape of the structure to one that is mobile is thus one method to revive architecture’s initial essence.
METHODS AND STRUCTURE
As a result of scientists’ ongoing investigation, there are an increasing number of places and resources on Mars that are worthy of study; yet, launching Mars rovers to investigate these regions poses three significant challenges. First, the Mars rover has limited mobility, so if the whole planet is to be explored, more equipment will need to be sent to Mars. This would produce a great deal of space debris and a second issue involving investment funds. A substantial amount of Mars development will be expensive, but also carries the danger of unproductive expenditure. Third, if we want to take people to Mars, the planet’s hostile climate would pose several unknown threats to human life. Therefore, we may create a movable structure that can be studied with its residents on Mars, so expanding the scope of human study and reducing expenditures. In addition, it would passively avoid the danger of some natural calamities to human life.
However, how should the architect design such a structure? What factors must be considered for this design? Which inputs would have the most impact on the design? What experiences were learned from space architecture design that can be applied on Earth?
Goals of the design
1. Structure Move on unflatten tarrain while stablizing on the same horizontal height throughout the trip
2. Simple and Lightweighted Design that can be carry to Mars
3. Simple Moving system
4. External connection to create a cluster of community
5. Habitat have access to the raw terrain for scientific researches
6. Multi-functional spaces
7. Create physical prototyping for the design
This time frame was chosen because the manned mission to Mars is no longer the imaginary science-fiction movie plot. With influential authorities such as Elon Musk, Nasa, and the Chinese national space programme, humankind is one step closer to embarking on a journey to inhabit an extraterrestrial planet. NASA estimates that manned missions to the moon and the establishment of lunar habitats will be completed within the next decade. In addition, NASA is working to build the necessary capabilities to transport people to an asteroid by 2025 and to Mars in the 2030s.11 Billions of dollars have already been invested in researching Mars dwellings in preparation for a human journey to Mars. Thus, I believe that providing a design solution that may benefit human exploration of Mars is an urgent need for architects to design cosmic architecture.
The timeline for this project is dictated by technological advances in the field of space architecture research. I believe that theoretically movable buildings could be deployed to Mars for the initial tests to evaluate the maximum usability and survivability of the project by the 2030s.
Before that, the project could be tested in a similar environment on Earth before 2025. Test whether this machine can move forward smoothly on the unruly ground. It is also necessary to test where the limitation of the design is in order to facilitate the modification. The mobile architecture technology is not only for human exploration of outer space but also may bring a different experience to Earth. If we construct a building that can travel above the Earth’s surface with minimal damage to the local terrain, we can create a dual space that satisfies the desire for human mobility in nature and protects the environment at the same time.
This is a private resort for a big Saudi family inspired by the traditional architecture of the gulf area. The big family consists of the father, the elder son 'the owner of the land' along with his children and brothers. The brief was to create a private resort rather than a group of stacked houses. The challenge was to create a place that fits three different generations. A unified resort with respect to privacy and all the traditional and environmental aspects in the Saudi region. The design responded to each aspect separately and collectively.
The main concept was to design the houses semi-attached to each other with courtyards for each to separate them from each other. All are formed to surround the “oasis”, which in this case is the main landscape of the project that connects all houses. As the whole land was surrounded by streets from all sides, The design intention was to put the father's mansion on one end of the land and the elder son t the other. And in between them the land was divided to two in length, where the other houses for the children and brothers are on one side and the common tall landscape area is on the other.
The landscape area “oasis” is designed to act as a shared backyard for all the houses where it connects them all on side of each house, just like the oasis does to the surrounding habitat. This long water feature area cutting the landscape connects the two big mansions at both ends of the land passing by the smaller houses to create a journey between all generations. To tell the family's story and connect them like a huge majlis connecting all the family around one table. The houses are structured on the 35 cm bearing wall system as the height is only 3 floors and the openings are mainly arches. And it also maintains the temperature inside the spaces that overlook the private courtyards.
The openings facing the street are narrow and small in comparison to the openings facing the courtyards. The big mansions consist of two buildings each. The house and the Diwania 'the public and VIP reception areas with its facilities', both buildings separated by archades with private courtyards for each. All courtyards contain greenery and water features to cool the circulating air that eventually flows into the houses. It's a private resort with unified houses by visual and physical axis, yet visually and privately separated from each other. It's a traditional Saudi house with all its elements and spiritual existence.
The total built-up area of the project is almost 6,000 sqm excluding the basement spaces.
The height is G 1 roof.
Adel Badrawy - Lead Architect
Sarah Ashraf - Project Manager
Alaa Al Kady - Architect
Hadeel Al Tenawy - Architect
Mohamed Eisa - Architect